Original Article Implications of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism in health and disease: a snapshot review
Paul R. Gard
University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb, BRIGHTON BN2 4GJ UK
Received December 20, 2009; accepted December, 2009; available online January, 2010
Abstract: This review considers the 250+ publications concerning the association of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion / deletion polymorphism and various disease conditions. The deletion allele occurs in approximately 55% of the population and is associated with increased activity of the ACE enzyme. It might be predicted that the D allele, therefore, might be associated with pathologies involving increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system. The D allele was seen to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, heart failure, cerebral infarct, diabetic nephropathy, encephalopathy, asthma, severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes, gastric cancer (in Caucasians) and poor prognosis following kidney transplant. On the positive side, the D allele appears to offer protection against schizophrenia and chronic periodontitis and confers greater upper-body strength in old age. The I allele, meanwhile, offers improved endurance / athletic performance and aerobic capacity as determined by lung function tests, although it does increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma and obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensives. (IJMEG912003).